Why the students can speak two languages are smart?

I read the follow article, I think it will be more benefit for the CIP students. So I share the article here.
为什么掌握两种语言的人更聪明 | 语音实验Workshop2017-01-19 纽约时报中文网 语音实验Workshop
Harriet Russell
Editor’s Note: We’re resurfacing this story from the archives to show you how learning a second language can improve how you think.
编者按:我们重新刊出这篇旧文是为了让读者知道,学习第二语言会如何改善人的思维方式。
SPEAKING two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.
在越来越全球化的当今世界,会说两种,而不仅仅是一种语言的实际好处颇为明显。但近年来,科学家开始证明,双语能力能带来更加根本性的优势,不只是可以和更多人的交谈那么简单。事实证明,双语会让人变得更聪明。它会对大脑产生深远的影响,提升和语言无关的认知能力,甚至能预防老年失智症。
This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development.
在20世纪的很长一段时间里,对双语能力的看法和对它的认识有很大的不同。研究人员、教育工作者和政策制定者长期认为,从认知上来说,第二语言是一种干扰,会妨碍孩子的学业和智力发展。
They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.
他们认为它是一种干扰没有错:大量证据表明,对一个双语者来说,即便只使用其中一种语言,他大脑里的两个语言系统也都是活跃的,进而造成一个体系妨碍另一个体系的情况。但研究人员发现,这种干扰与其说是一种障碍,比如说是隐性的幸运。它会迫使大脑化解内部冲突,让思维得到锻炼,而这种锻炼又能够增强认知能力。
Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital bins — one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle.
比如,双语者似乎比单语者更擅长解决某些类型的智力题目。在心理学家埃伦·比亚利斯托克(Ellen Bialystok)和米歇尔·马丁-李(Michelle Martin-Rhee)于2004年进行的一项研究中,双语和单语学龄前儿童被要求将电脑屏幕上蓝色的圆形和红色的正方形分别放进两个数字箱里——一个有蓝色正方形标记,另一个有红色圆形标记。
In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task.
在第一项任务中,孩子们必须根据颜色对图形进行分类,把蓝色的圆形放进标有蓝色正方形的箱里,把红色正方形放进标有红色圆形的箱里。完成这项任务时,两组孩子都比较轻松。接下来,孩子们被要求根据形状分类,这项任务更难,因为它要求将图形放进标记的颜色和图形颜色冲突的箱里。在完成这项任务时,双语孩子的速度更快。
The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.
来自大量这类研究的证据共同表明,双语经历会提升大脑所谓的执行功能(executive function)——一个命令系统,指挥我们用来规划、解决问题和完成其他各种各样对智力有要求的任务的注意力过程。这些过程包括忽略干扰、保持注意力集中、随意转移注意力和在脑海中储存信息——如一边开车一边记住一连串的方向。
Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for inhibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.
为什么两个同时活跃的语言系统之间的争斗会改善认知的这些方面?直到最近,研究人员还认为双语优势主要来自抑制能力。它可以通过压制一种语言系统得到锻炼:这种压制被认为有助于训练双语者的大脑在其他情况下忽略分心的事物。但这种解释似乎越来越不充分,因为研究表明,甚至在不要求具备抑制能力的任务上,双语者表现得也比单语者更好,比如用一条线将页面上随机分布的数字按照从小到大的顺序连起来。
The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. “Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often — you may talk to your father in one language and to your mother in another language,” says Albert Costa, a researcher at the University of Pompeu Fabra in Spain. “It requires keeping track of changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when driving.” In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr. Costa and his colleagues found that the bilingual subjects not only performed better, but they also did so with less activity in parts of the brain involved in monitoring, indicating that they were more efficient at it.
双语者与单语者之间的关键差别或许更为基本:观察环境的能力更强。“双语者不得不非常频繁地转换语言——可能用一种语言和父亲对话,用另一种语言和母亲交流,”西班牙庞培法布拉大学(Pompeu Fabra University)的研究人员阿尔贝特·科斯塔(Albert Costa)说。“它要求像我们在开车时观察周围环境一样追踪四周的变化。”在一项对比德语-意大利语双语者和意大利语单语者在观察任务中的表现的研究中,科斯塔和同事发现,双语实验对象不仅表现得更好,而且观察时使用的大脑相关区域的活跃程度较低,这表明他们的观察效率更高。
The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life).
双语经历对大脑的影响似乎会从婴儿时期一直持续到老年(有理由认为这可能也适用于在生命的后期学习第二语言的人)。
In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In an initial set of trials, the infants were presented with an audio cue and then shown a puppet on one side of a screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set of trials, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not.
在2009年的一项研究中,意大利的里雅斯特国际高级研究学院(International School for Advanced Studies)的阿涅斯·科瓦奇(Agnes Kovacs)对比了从出生就接触两种语言的七个月大的婴儿,和在一种语言环境下长大的同龄婴儿的表现。在最初的一组试验中,婴儿先听到了一段音频提示,接着在屏幕的一侧发现了一个木偶。两组婴儿都学会了在想看木偶时,看向屏幕的那一侧。但在后来的一组试验中,当木偶开始出现在屏幕上相反的一侧时,接触双语环境的宝宝很快便学会了将期望的眼神转向新的方向,而其他宝宝却没有。
Bilingualism’s effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism — measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency in each language — were more resistant than others to the onset of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of onset.
双语能力的影响还会延续到暮年。在最近对44名老年西班牙语-英语双语者进行的一项研究中,以加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)神经心理学家塔马·高兰(Tamar Gollan)为首的科学家发现,双语程度更高——通过每种语言的相对熟练水平来衡量——的人比其他人更能防止失智和其他阿尔茨海默氏症的症状出现:双语程度越高,出现的时间越晚。
Nobody ever doubted the power of language. But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint?
从来没人怀疑过语言的力量。但谁会想到,我们听到和说出的语句可能会产生如此深刻的影响呢?
本文作者余和吉特·巴塔查尔吉(Yudhijit Bhattacharjee)是《科学》杂志特约撰稿人。

翻译:陈亦婷

转载自NYT教育频道(ID:nytedu)

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PD Day

Today is the PD day. The district offers many courses to us and let us to choose. I enrolled the Classroom Energizers which is for K-5. From this course I learnt that if you sit for 20minutes your brain will not work well. So you need remind yourself when you are doing instructions, you need let your students move a little bit,otherwise their brains can not work well.

New Year is Coming!

Chinese New Year is coming. And my students want to know some information about it. Then they write letters to the Chinese students, hope the Chinese students can help them to get some information and they wish Chinese students happy new year.

I will let the Chinese students introduce or share some stories about our Chinese New Year.


中国新年马上就要到了,美国的小朋友们想知道一些关于中国新年的事,他们给他们中国的笔友写了信,并预祝她们新年快乐。

我也会告诉中国的小朋友多介绍或者分享一些关于中国新年的故事。